Closed Die Forging: What Is It All About?

A few of the forged types for little or medium metal materials is closed die forging, also known as impressions die forging. Closed die forging, as opposed to open die forging, is just a deforming technique in which the matter is fed directly in a closed shape called a die. Near die forging may generate more complicated geometries, which are incredibly close to the dimensions of the completed component, as compared to open die forging. Plastic deformation is achieved quickly using a series of shots that push the materials to fill the die’s shape. Each method is carried out towards the plastic temp of the materials in use, without intermediate re-heatings.


Part of the manufacturer’s understanding of the creation and fabrication of dies is crucial in closed die forging. Tool steels are the most often used forging dies. The costs of forging dies are usually substantially higher due to expensive material and machining costs, but it is a one-time expense that will not be charged to our clients for further batch production. While open die forging may be used to make individual parts, closed die forging is used to create series manufacturing because it is easier to absorb the cost of the dies.


Closed Die Forging Method

Closed die forging occurs when steel is put in a die that looks like a mould and is connected to an anvil. The hammer die is usually formed as well. The object is eventually crushed against the hammer, pushing the metals to move and fill the die holes. During milliseconds, the hammer makes repeated contact. The hammer may descend numerous times in rapid succession, based on the scale and intricacy of the component. Flashing refers to the surplus metals forced out of the die cavities. Because the flash cools faster than the remainder of the material and is generally more vital than the metal in the die, it helps prevent the formation of new moments. The flash also causes the metal to fill the die cavity, which is removed following forging.


To get from billet form to final form in industrial closed die forging, the object is usually pushed through a succession of cavities in a die. The initial impression distributes the metals into the rough form according to the material required in the holes later on. Edging, fullering, or bending beliefs describe this kind of imprint. Following that, blocking cavities are created, in which the component is manipulated into a form that resembles the final result more closely. Due to these many phases, the workpiece frequently has generous bends and wide fillets. Inside a finisher or last cavity, the final form is forged. If the components are only being produced in a small quantity, it may be more cost-effective to skip the final imprint cavity and instead machine the part.


Materials for Closed Die Forging

Even though almost all metals are utilised in closed die forging, only a small percentage of them have been used in real manufacture for varied qualities. One of the most significant elements influencing the pricing of forgings is the materials utilised. Let’s take a look at some of the most often utilised closed die forging products components.



Steel is the most commonly used material for closed die forging. According to the forging’s function, stainless steel, carbon steel, and alloy steels are used. Equipment that needs corrosion and rust resistance is often made of stainless steel.



Aluminium is really popular, despite its low density, high strength, and simplicity of machining. It’s often used in closed die forging, especially in the automotive and aerospace sectors. Due to its widespread use in the automotive and aerospace industries, its tendency for distortion after forging makes it a challenge for national forging. On the other hand, thermal treatment may enhance the hardness and other qualities.


Copper or Brass

Closed die forging, the most costly of the three materials we’ve studied, is also routinely done with copper or brass. For valve and pump fittings, copper or brass forging is usually utilised.


Advantages & Disadvantages of Closed Die Forging



  • Creating an interior grain structure improves the goods’ tightness and strength.
  • For large production runs, it is cost-effective.
  • In terms of content, there have been no restrictions.
  • Surface quality has been improved.
  • It needs little or no machining due to its tight tolerances.
  • Measures with tighter tolerances and more acceptable shapes are conceivable.



  • Due to the high cost of die manufacturing, small batches are not particularly cost-effective.
  • A dangerous working environment is created while forging with a closed die.


Steel and aluminium components are mainly produced via closed die forging. As a result, closed die forging has a broad range of purposes. It could be used to make industrial drilling bits, woodland wear parts, agrarian wear parts, construction wear parts, lifting and rigging components, and so on. In a nutshell, any product that needs high-quality components might use this approach.